Guide Suzanne Smy in Vietnam, Cambodia & Thailand: a travelogue

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In his free time, he likes to make cocktails and dance salsa. Wookjae is 26 years old and from South Korea. At school, he served as vice president of the student union at Peking University, deputy secretary of the Communist Youth League Committee at Guanghua, and party secretary in his branch. He was supervised by renowned economist Li Yining and completed systematic research on the New-Type Urbanization in China.

He is dedicated to enhancing social fairness and the well-being of mankind. Xuanhao is 26 years old and from China. Yan Aung graduated from the Swinburne University of Technology with concentrations in marketing and entrepreneurship. He has worked in market research and small business marketing and is currently leading a digital marketing agency. As a business technologist, he has transformed these companies with more efficient operating models.

When he is not working, he co-manages Google Business Group Yangon and teaches digital marketing at local communities. He is now striving to be part of the digital transformation of the country's governance system. Yan is 26 years old and from Myanmar. He was also Co-Founder and President of Advisory www.

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Yi Jun is 21 years old and from Singapore. He led a team to explore target companies' strength with specific consideration for the environment in the local stock market. He also led a team of business professionals on a rural revitalization project in Sichuan in Upon completion of Schwarzman Scholars, Yingjie hopes to continue his devotion to minimizing the regional development gap and to fighting poverty.

Yingjie is 27 years old and from China. He will graduate in the spring of with a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and a minor in Spanish. He shares his passion for STEM by teaching modules for kids in local schools, and enjoys spending time honing his Spanish working with local Hispanic youth. Upon completion of his studies, he will begin training to serve as a naval aviator. Yogaish is 21 years old and from the United States. She has presented research on the history of architecture at top academic conferences and presented a design project at Politecnico di Milano.

Yuan has served as the student coordinator of Xinya College for two years. She was also selected as Tsinghua University's delegate to the global south cultural exchange program in India, in which she presented her research on slums at Jindal Global University. Yuan is 22 years old and from China. Prior to joining Schwarzman Scholars, Jeremy was a vice president in charge of international business at the Beijing-based bicycle sharing company, ofo. Jeremy also worked in the Deutsche Bank Hong Kong investment banking division for four years.

After Schwarzman Scholars, he is keen to further explore start-up opportunities. Jeremy is 27 years old and from China. Zachary Tan is a medical doctor and Director at CancerAid, a leading cancer patient support startup. Zachary worked toward ophthalmology specialist training and developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to screen pediatric eye disease, and has published papers in public health and health technology.

Zachary was President of his medical school student body and served on the Australian Medical Association, successfully advocating for resident doctor safe working hour policy changes. Zachary is passionate about the intersection of clinical medicine, policy, and technology to improve healthcare outcomes broadly. Zachary is 26 years old and from New Zealand. Through the Davis Projects for Peace, Zainab designed and implemented a project aimed at increasing educational attainment for rural girls in Morocco. She is currently working on expanding this program domestically and starting her own NGO to improve educational outcomes for girls globally.

She is fluent in Arabic, French and English. Zainab is 22 years old and from Morocco. Zanele Mahlangu holds a B. Eng Chemical Engineering degree from the University of Pretoria. Zanele is a published author in the Italian Chemical Engineering Journal, an accomplishment she achieved through her undergraduate research project. Zanele is passionate about social justice and economic equality in South Africa. She has been involved with multiple community projects, like Zama Lesedi, an Enactus project aimed at providing solar lights to a community without electricity.

Upon graduation, Zanele plans to use the knowledge to impact the community projects she is involved with that are aimed at mitigating poverty. Zanele is 23 years old and from South Africa.

Checked baggage ( Domestic sector):

Zequn Zhao graduated in from Sun Yat-Sen University with a Bachelor's degree in Applied Meteorology, focusing on pollution control and environmental regulation mechanisms. In , he was named Outstanding Student Leader in Guangdong. Currently, he is a member of standing committee of Guangdong Youth Federation, and is in charge of public service. Through the Schwarzman Scholars program, Zequn hopes to obtain an advanced global perspective in solving Chinese issues and enhance his internationalized vision.

Zequn is 24 years old and from China. Growing up in Zimbabwe, China, and the United States, Zetong acquired a multicultural perspective and became passionate about global development and international relations. Zetong has worked in Liberia following the civil conflict to empower Liberian youth through community development projects and entrepreneurship training.

His goal is to one day become engaged in the realm of policy and diplomacy among China, the U. Zetong is 21 years old and from China. He is passionate about education and social innovation. As a sophomore, he founded THILLIANT, a start-up that promotes the practical ethos of college students and the mindset of high-school students from second and third-tier Chinese cities. He also organized three student social practice teams to dig into the details in the Chinese rural areas. Stanford University named him a University Innovation Fellow for his efforts to improve the atmosphere of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at Peking University.

With her team, she built a women's empowerment academy and volunteered her time to facilitate the program for two consecutive summers. Zhiquan believes cinema is the best instrument to make positive social impact and the best language for different cultures to communicate. In the future, Zhiquan wants to explore ways to produce and deliver better Chinese cinema content to the world.

Zhiquan is 21 years old and from China. Enthusiastic about cross-cultural communication through business activities, Zhiyuan is an experienced entrepreneur who has founded Informatree LLC. Through the Schwarzman Scholars program, he hopes to enhance his critical thinking, cross-cultural understanding, and global leadership to help connect rising China with the ever-evolving world.

Zhiyuan is 28 years old and from China. Her background in social science and business converged in her experiences serving underprivileged groups including migrant workers, homeless populations, and female inmates. She has also interned in a Village Committee in Beijing and conducted research on urban village renewal schemes. At Penn, she founded Urban China Collective, a global network of scholars and professionals exploring more inclusive, sustainable urban governance strategies.

As a Schwarzman Scholar, she aspires to study public policies germane to urbanization and social inclusion in a global context. Zhongyuan is 24 years old and from Beijing, China. Zhou shows great interest in international affairs, especially in refugee settlement. During an exchange at Heidelberg University, he initiated mutual understanding between refugees and Germans. Upon return to China, he also led a group to offer a refugee marketplace design plan, which became the only Chinese finalist in the marketplace competition among proposals.

With the mastery of five languages, Zhou hopes to become an international public servant in the future. Zhou is 23 years old and from China. She is the co-founder of Flourish Mentoring Program, a non-profit organization for young girls. Upon graduation, she hopes to pursue a dual M. D and MHA. In addition to her research experience, Adaya also values exposure to non-STEM fields and has completed internships in both business and politics. She aspires to use this diverse background to help reform the United States healthcare system.

Adaya is 21 years old and from the United States. Adeline Tiffanie Suwana graduated from the University of Indonesia with a Bachelor in Economics, concentrating in the environment and natural resources. During her undergraduate studies, she was a visiting scholar at the University of Melbourne and Harvard University. Adeline has previously worked in climate policy, agribusiness and finance, and founded a non-profit dedicated to environmental conservation efforts and awareness in young people.

Adeline is 20 years old and from Indonesia. As a Senior Investigation Officer in the Major Crime Division of the Criminal Investigation Department, her professional experience revolves around homicide, kidnapping and firearm cases. She is also an Honorary Aide-de-Camp to the President, serving the country's highest office on international missions.

Upon graduation from the Schwarzman Scholars program, she will return to serve the Public Service with newfound experiences, aiming to prevent, deter and detect crime through enhanced international police cooperation. Agnes is 28 years old and from Singapore. She has worked with the U. Alana has also spent significant time assisting resettled refugees in the United States, and in the future hopes to work towards improving and strengthening U.

By participating in the Schwarzman Scholars program, Alana hopes to better appreciate how China influences transnational migration and global development. Alana is 25 years old and from the United States. Alex Kamath is a student at Harvard Law School. He won best oralist awards in both competitions. Alex hopes to work as an international arbitrator and bilateral investment treaty negotiator. Alex is 26 years old and from the United States.

Alice Dawkins has completed honours theses in Asian Studies and Law. Alice is 23 years old and from Australia. She recently worked with U. Amy is passionate about studying the strategic security benefits of mainstreaming gender perspectives in military operations and hopes to pursue a career in defense consulting and national security policy. Amy is 21 years old and from the United States. She also spent a semester traveling across 4 continents and 12 countries with Semester at Sea which shaped her passion and desire to integrate culture and diversity in a business setting.

Angela works at Blackrock based in Hong Kong advising a diverse range of pension funds, insurance companies, and family offices across Asia. Her performance at the firm was awarded an Early Career Female Sponsorship in She is also opening a food and lifestyle marketplace that aims to create a platform for the local creative and arts community within her hometown of Taichung. Through the Schwarzman Scholars program, An-Chi hopes to explore the entrepreneurship landscape in Beijing and further enhance her leadership skills in order to effectively lead and manage her own businesses. An-Chi is 24 years old and from Taiwan.

He is a firm believer in harnessing the power of rigorous economic theories and econometric tools to promote social welfare. After college, he worked as a research associate at the finance unit of Harvard Business School. His current research interests include pension design and asset pricing. Andi is 23 years old and from China. Previously, Andrew worked at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in Hong Kong where he advised corporates on international capital markets transactions.

He is also an angel investor and advisor to multiple startups in Asia. Upon completion of Schwarzman Scholars, Andrew hopes to continue his career in venture capital to help scale technologies that address global problems. Andrew is 25 years old and from Canada. He is the co-founder of Neliti, Indonesia's largest platform for sharing academic research. Andrew is passionate about technology and entrepreneurship, and as a Schwarzman Scholar aspires to further his knowledge of China to improve a mutual understanding of contemporary issues around business and technology.

Andrew is 28 years old and from Australia. Anh Vu Vincent Nguyen received higher education in Australia and spent the early stage of his career away from his hometown of Vietnam. Before becoming a Schwarzman Scholar, Anh worked for a well-established financial institution in Sydney. Anh Vu Vincent has achieved a great deal in the not-for-profit space, serving on management committees of charities and professional associations in both Australia and Vietnam.

He is the founder of a publication platform for Vietnamese to express their voice, share their knowledge and tell their stories. He also founded Vietnam Centre, an organization with a mission to promote Vietnam to the world. He wants to promote a mutual understanding and economic partnership between Vietnam and China.

Anh Vu Vincent is 28 years old and from Vietnam. After graduating Stern, Anthony has worked at J. Upon completion of Schwarzman Scholars, Anthony hopes to pursue a career in the merging bond market in China, with an interest in green financing and promoting greater environmental sustainability. Anthony has a passion of traveling, having grown up in 3 different continents Asia, Europe and North America.

Anthony is 24 years old and from Canada. Arjun is 23 years old and from the United States. Aron Rimanyi will graduate in May from Duke University, where he studies political science and economics as an Angier B. Duke Scholar. Over the past three years, Aron worked with people and companies affiliated with the Hungarian government on international diplomatic and economic initiatives. With a wide range of interests, Aron has published articles on medieval history, led a staff ride to Grenada, and debated policy in the Swiss youth parliament.

In the future, Aron hopes to pursue a career in government consulting. Aron is 21 years old and is from Hungary and the United States. His professional career has evolved his perception, attitude and work by providing him the perfect platform for leading globally diverse teams in Malaysia, Indonesia and Japan. As a Schwarzman Scholar, Ashish wants to explore in depth the technicalities, drivers and developments in the manufacturing industry while building relationships that will help foster India-China business cooperation.

Ashish is 25 years old and from India. He has led public health research in Harbin, China studying diabetes in rural to urban migrants. Locally, he is a Community Outreach Fellow, where he is working on changing the Texas Family Code to empower homeless youth through healthcare. Benjamin is also interested in the intersection between finance and healthcare, working at Peregrine Investments as the healthcare analyst. He is passionate about addressing healthcare disparities and one day hopes to work on international health policy.

Benjamin is 21 years old and from the United States. Upon graduation, he will hold a Bachelor of Science degree in astronautical engineering. At the Academy, Ben has held numerous leadership positions while also serving as a glider instructor pilot and nationally competitive aerobatic pilot.

Following the Schwarzman Scholars program, Ben will serve his nation as an Air Force officer and military pilot. Ben is 21 years old and from the United States. He is working on a startup in the solar industry and is leading the development of solar projects in Malaysia. With a passion for sustainable energy, Bor Hung hopes to drive the transformation of mankind into a zero carbon society. Bor Hung is 24 years old and from Malaysia. He returned to Beijing and started his career in the two largest state-owned financial companies: Citic Group and Everbright Group. He possesses the ambition to facilitate a more cohesive and consensual Sino-American relationship.

Through the Schwarzman Scholars program, Bozhong hopes to gain a holistic perspective about the world especially the United States. Bozhong is 28 years old and from China. Bradley Jardine is a journalist from Scotland and for the past three years has worked across the former Soviet Union, from the Caspian Sea to the Baltic States. Bradley later arrived in Russia as a reporter and editor for The Moscow Times, writing stories on topics such as the far right, disinformation, criminal networks and terrorism.

Bradley is interested in digital media and its impact on journalism. Bradley is 26 years old and from the United Kingdom. He serves as the Cadet-in-Charge of the Sandhurst Infantry Skills Competition, which assembles over fifty international military academies and ROTC programs to compete in a rigorous competition testing physical fitness and military skills. He also learned first-hand the ramifications of banking regulatory reforms as an intern at Deutsche Bank. He intends to study public policy and law to advocate for human rights at home and abroad.

Brad is 21 years old and from the United States. Brett Daley will graduate from Northeastern University in May with a bachelor's degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering, where he currently conducts research on artificial intelligence and robotics. Brett is interested in entrepreneurship and its ability to accelerate technological progress. As a Schwarzman Scholar, Brett hopes to develop his leadership skills and better understand how artificial intelligence can promote global prosperity.

Brett is 23 years old and from the United States. Bridget is passionate about diversity and inclusion and working with not-for-profit, government and corporate stakeholders to promote social inclusion, particularly through sports and recreation. Bridget is a coach of young women in sports, and a manager in the sports administration industry. Bridget has designed, led and implemented various gender equality initiatives across Australia in the sporting industry to empower women and girls. Bridget is 27 years old and from Australia. As a Schwarzman Scholar, she hopes to continue her Mandarin studies and develop her knowledge of global business and international relations, to play a significant role in shaping Chinese economic relations with European countries.

Capucine is 21 years old and from France.

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  • As a painter, Charlie applies his artistic perspective to his passions for economics and investing. He wrote his senior thesis on the relationship between Chinese fiscal policy centralization and provincial real estate markets. Charlie is 23 years old and from South Florida in the United States. Christopher Yuan is a senior studying Computer Science at Stanford University with a focus on computer systems and artificial intelligence. As president of the Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students, he brought entrepreneurship education to over 5, people.

    Chris believes that entrepreneurs will quickly drive advancements in AI and automation that reshape global political and social structures. As a Schwarzman Scholar, Chris hopes to learn how governments can effectively work with industry leaders to guide advancements in technology for the benefit of humankind.

    In his free time, he is an enthusiastic cyclist, painter, and waltz dancer. In after graduation, she founded her wellness company. Her goal is to expand her business internationally and to become a leader in the domain of maternity healthcare. As a Schwarzman Scholar, she hopes to see how Hong Kong startup could further explore the market opportunity in China and to leverage the Chinese capital market for growth acceleration. Chun Po Chiu is 26 years old and from Hong Kong.

    Claire Colberg graduated from Stanford University with a B. Claire is currently a junior project manager in McKinsey's San Francisco office. While at Stanford, Claire spent 6 months living in Beijing and studying Mandarin, and is excited about returning to Beijing to continue her studies on China. Claire is 25 years old and from the United States. Clarinda is the founder of the Free Philosophy Project, an organization which allows university students to lead philosophy classes in homeless shelters.

    She also spent time living in rural China where she did research in education policy. Blais will pursue a PhD in education, closely examining the differences in education in China and the U. She believes this understanding is essential to promoting strong, productive relations between the two countries. Clarinda is 22 years old and from the United States. Colin is 25 years old and is from Canada and the United States. Colleen Ryan is a recent graduate of the University of Tennessee and is currently studying post-war recovery at the University of York on a Fulbright grant.

    With interests in conflict-sensitive development and justice sector reform, she has conducted fieldwork in Uganda and Kosovo. She completed two undergraduate theses examining prison reform in Uganda's post-conflict transition and exploring alternative justice mechanisms for sexual violence adjudication on U. She has been active in advocacy around sexual violence prevention and sex education access in her home state of Tennessee.

    Colleen is 22 years old and from the United States. Cristina Parajon will graduate from Harvard University in May with a degree in Sociology and a minor in Government. Cristina has served as the president of the world's largest Model OAS Conference, founded the Harvard Organization for Latin America, and been published for her research on adolescent pregnancy in Nicaragua. Cristina aims to return to Nicaragua and improve the quality of living for women in Latin America. Cristina is 21 years old and from Nicaragua. He graduated from Stanford University in with a degree in Economics and History.

    Passionate about foreign policy, Daniel wrote an undergraduate honors thesis on the evolving role of the armed forces in German security policy. Daniel is 23 years old and is from Germany and the United States. Deborah Tien graduated from Wellesley College with a degree in Astrophysics in Deborah is 27 years old and from the United States. Originally from Oklahoma, he is the son of Vietnamese refugees who came to the United States following the fall of Saigon, and is dedicated to helping the refugees of today.

    He has done extensive research into American refugee policy, with his thesis analyzing the variation in outcomes between asylum and refugee policy processes. Danny hopes that by studying public policy in China, he can gain the tools necessary to be a policy leader and change refugee policy for the better. Danny is 21 years old and from the United States.

    Edwin Saucedo is a masters student at the University of Southern California where he also received a B. At USC, Edwin served as Student Body President, representing 18, undergraduates and advocating for increased resources for marginalized students. Currently, Edwin is a Jesse M.

    In the future, he hopes to serve marginalized communities by fostering trade and investment in underserved areas. Edwin is 22 years old and from the United States. She hopes to pursue a career in consequence management. Elizabeth is 22 years old and from the United States. Elizabeth Maio is a water and wastewater engineer working professionally in NY designing water treatment systems to provide clean water and sanitation to communities across the NE.

    She has been a leader for new municipal wastewater disinfection technologies working with equipment manufacturers and regulators to evaluate and pilot test new technologies. She is an active member of the Water Environment Federation WEF , leading talks in her field on water and wastewater treatment. She also co-developed a Professionals Network for environmental professionals and has lead talks on effective communication and career development.

    As a Schwarzman Scholar, Elizabeth hopes to gain an understanding of how China regulates and manages its water resources and apply these technologies and methodologies globally to improve water quality. Elizabeth is 27 years old and from the United States. He is also a mentor and a guest lecturer across over 30 countries on the topics of design thinking, innovation and entrepreneurship. Enoch is 28 years old and from Hong Kong. Born in Seattle, he attended primary school in Beijing, secondary school in Hong Kong, and university in the States. The constant travel allowed him to adapt to various cultures, and these experiences have shaped him into the person he is today.

    He founded the Penn Wharton China Summit during his freshmen year at Wharton, and this summit has become the largest student-organized summit in the States. He, then, founded the China Summit Foundation, a recognized NGO with the c 3 status towards the end of to help charities, forums, educational and cultural initiatives by International students from different schools. By the end of his junior year, Eric joined Liepin in hopes to help International students with their career back in China and served as the CEO of Liepin America upon his graduation in December He looks forward to excel further in his studies by joining the Schwarzman Scholars program.

    Eric is 22 years old and from Hong Kong. During her time in MIIS, she developed deep interest and passion in nuclear energy development and its policy planning. Upon graduation, she was nominated and awarded the opportunity to work at the Safeguards Department of International Atomic Energy Agency. Currently she works for a consulting company where she focuses primarily on the impact of energy and infrastructure development. Fangdi wishes to further her passion in energy and security and hopes to create meaningful and impactful dialogue in energy security between China and the rest of the world.

    Fangdi is 27 years old and from China. Since graduating, she has worked for Anadarko Petroleum as both a production and facilities engineer in Utah. Fay aspires to combine her technical field knowledge with studies in energy policy to help bridge the gap between governmental action and private involvement in addressing climate change. Fay is 24 years old and is from Luxembourg and the United States. Fei is passionate about healthcare and he aspires to be among the catalysts that will accelerate the Chinese Healthcare Reform process in the future.

    Fei is 28 years old and from China. Passionate about cities, she has done urban redevelopment and city planning work in Panama, Turkey, the United States, and Costa Rica. Long term, she is building an international city planning consulting career, focused specifically on emerging economies and developing countries. Actively pursuing this goal, she spent Summer building her consulting toolkit working at McKinsey and Company as a Business Analyst. She is excited to learn more about city growth, development, and public policy in China. Gabrielle is 23 years old and from Jamaica.

    He led a pro-bono consultancy that conducts projects with NGOs such as Amnesty International and was Vice Chairman of the largest student organization in Germany. Gian Marco is a frequent traveler, political discussant and passionate saxophone player. He holds both Italian and German citizenship. Gian Marco is 23 years old and is from Italy and Germany. Besides tackling challenging design problems, he also plays a key role in researching and implementing industry leading design tools as well as conducting training sessions.

    Upon completion of Schwarzman Scholars, Han hopes to pursue a career where he can combine his experience and knowledge in design and business development. Han is 24 years old and from China. His research focuses on military news press, and he aspires to contribute to the construction of China military news and communication system in the future. He has been to Hunan, Guizhou, Gansu and other areas in China to conduct social studies and provide volunteer teaching, as well as been to U.

    Hanfei is 24 years old and from China. Heather Evans is an entrepreneur turned civil servant. Following the decision to open source her second startup, Heather joined her Provincial Government as a Senior Advisor in advanced technology strategy, where she focuses on artificial intelligence and quantum technologies.

    She recently led the Canadian delegation to the G7 Youth Summit, and is curious to broaden her understanding of the world through Schwarzman College. Heather is 22 years old and from Canada. Her academic interests span sociopolitical crises in the Middle East and economic development in Asia. Heba has worked in disaster relief management and education with One Foundation in Shanghai and Maru-a-Pula in Gaborone, respectively.

    She hopes to continue studying economics and international policy at Schwarzman College. Heba is half-Egyptian and half-Chinese. She speaks Arabic, Chinese, English, and French. Heba is 23 years old and from Egypt. His interests in markets and technology led him to design a block chain-based system for agricultural financing in Latin America. Henry aspires to develop public policy for addressing the new challenges and opportunities created by technology.

    Henry is 22 years old and from the United States. Hugo Wood is a lawyer, social entrepreneur and human development advocate. He serves as Public Policy Advisor and Chief Speechwriter to the Vice-President and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Panama and is coordinating the largest debate student tournament in the history of his country.

    He graduated magna cum laude of Law and Political Science from Santa Maria La Antigua University where he was the founder of the United Youth for Dialogue, the university's current largest student organization. Passionate about education and policy implementation, he was awarded a scholarship by the Panamanian Government to study modern trends of international development at Harvard University's, Kennedy School of Government.

    Based on the recent diplomatic relations between Panama and China, his ambition is to connect Panama and Latin America with the Asian economic powerhouse and foster human development, inclusion and economic growth. Hugo is 27 years old and from Panama. During her years as an undergraduate, she has put her energy in GameChangers Academy and founded the project UniPrep, which prepares youngsters with lower socio-economic backgrounds for a successful academic and professional career.

    Imane is 20 years old and is from Morocco and the Netherlands. At Schwarzman Scholars, she intends to deepen her understanding of public policy and combine this with her background in economics, finance and business to work in climate and environmental policy. Isabel is fluent in Spanish, Mandarin and English.

    Isabel is 25 years old and from Spain. Ishan Anand will graduate in with a degree in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Cincinnati. Ishan aspires to be a physician in the future, whose vision is to develop a platform to provide high-quality, standardized, open-source healthcare to patients across the globe. In college, Ishan had the opportunity to work at a pharmacogenomics start-up, publish from various research labs, and design surgical instruments at a multinational medical device company. He helped create and currently serves as president of EnableUC, a non-profit, open-source, prosthetic and assistive device incubator that 3-D prints devices for local and international patients -- at no cost to the patient.

    As a Schwarzman Scholar, Ishan hopes to leverage his experiences to foster novel healthcare collaborations between China and the U. Ishan is 22 years old and is from Canada and the United States. As a senior, Jack is writing two additional honors theses in foreign affairs and Spanish.

    As a Schwarzman Scholar, he plans to explore the origins of Chinese foreign policy ideologies in preparation for a career in academia and government focusing on international security, law, and nonproliferation. Jack is 21 years old and from the United States. Jacqueline cultivated her interest in public service by interning at the U. House of Representatives and U. Census Bureau in Washington, D. She is pursuing the Schwarzman scholarship to strengthen her understanding of international policy and urban development.

    Jacqueline is 21 years old and from the United States. While at Barnard Jada co-founded the Athena Digital Design Agency, which educates women in coding, without the academic pressures, and employs them for their skills. Post-graduation Jada has worked as a Product Manager at Goldman Sachs focused on their foreign exchange and commodities execution platform. Jada is 23 years old and from the United States. Jae Hyun is 23 years old and from South Korea.

    A global citizen at heart, Jake has previously worked within the field of Asian microfinance and has undertaken study programs in Shanghai and Amsterdam. He aspires to use this background and the Schwarzman experience to lead in the field of social enterprise. Jake is 21 years old and from the Netherlands and Australia. James Barklamb will graduate from Monash University in Selected in as one of two inaugural New Colombo Plan scholars for Myanmar, his studies focus on political participation and governance structures in democracies in transition.

    He hopes to use these experiences to pursue work that engages emerging powers in global governance initiatives that support regional peace and security. James is 23 years old and from Australia. As an aspiring physician technologist, he has developed data infrastructure at Facebook and Tableau and conducted research in structural biology and clinical informatics. Through Schwarzman Scholars, he hopes to explore how societal norms and government policies perpetuate healthcare inequality, with the ultimate goal of leveraging emerging advancements in artificial intelligence to improve healthcare access.

    Jason is 21 years old and from the United States. As a reserve officer for PLA, he chose Satellite Navigation as the field on which his research focuses. He's determined to devote himself to the modernization of Chinese Military. Jingxuan served as the Captain of Tsinghua Reserve Officers in his senior year as an undergraduate student, leading over reserve officers. Currently, Jingxuan is a counselor at Tsinghua University, working at the management of students in the Department of Electronic Engineering and Reserve Officers.

    Jingxuan is also an expert host who has participated in many soirees. Jingxuan is 21 years old and from China. Joelle Cheong will graduate in June from the University of Sheffield with a double major in Politics and Sociology. She is also launching several new initiatives to enhance youth engagement in politics and social issues in Singapore. In the future, she hopes to further her career in the public service, leveraging on the knowledge and experiences gained about China and the world from the Schwarzman Scholars Programme.

    Joelle is 22 years old and from Singapore. Passionate about international relations and entrepreneurship, Jonathan pursued academic exchange programs in the Netherlands and Australia and co-founded Moniversity to offer accessible financial knowledge to university students in Montreal. Prior to becoming a Schwarzman Scholar, he interned at the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Ecuador and became a Queen Elizabeth Scholar to work with Monash University in improving the primary health care system for refugees and asylum seekers in Australia.

    Jonathan is 24 years old and from Canada and Colombia. Born the grandson of war refugees, Jordan-Nicolas Matte, grew up with a passion for the field of peacekeeping. Through the Schwarzman Scholar program, Jordan hopes to bridge Chinese and Canadian efforts to reform United Nations peacekeeping, focusing on conflict prevention through social and economic development.

    Jordan is 25 years old and is from Romania and Canada. Joseph Kim received his B. He won the senior department prize for his project on on-demand energy consumption visualization. Joseph continues his work in energy efficiency as the lead production engineer at Oracle Utilities Global Business Unit, which has saved enough energy to take the entire city of Pittsburg off the grid for a year. Through the Schwarzman Scholars program, he hopes to learn how to harness technology to solve social problems of the 21st century.

    Joseph is 24 years old and from the United States. During his time in China, Joe plans to delve deeply into the Chinese hospitality and tourism industries. In the future, Joe wants to foster cross-cultural hospitality partnerships between China and the United States of America. Joe is 27 years old and from the United States. In his spare time, he practiced jazz violin and managed his own campus photography business. Joshua hopes that, during his tenure at Tsinghua University, he will maximize his understanding of foreign policy, increase his Mandarin proficiency, and make invaluable connections that will lead to a career in foreign diplomacy.

    Joshua is 22 years old and from the United States. Upon graduation, Juan returned to Colombia with a commitment to create a social and economic impact in his home country. He is also co-founder of Mentors4u Colombia, a mentorship program that connects talented college students from underprivileged backgrounds, with successful professionals.

    He has conducted research into the impact of local government debts on the land prices in multiple provinces in China. He has most recently worked as an intern analyst at the head office of China Development Bank. Junrong is 23 years old and from China. He is interested in the role of education and infrastructure in accelerating the growth of emerging economies. Justus founded Seven United, a youth-run non-profit in Rwanda with the dual mission of providing children from low-income families with access to quality education and of empowering young people to be servant-leaders in their communities.

    Justus recently created a U. At Harvard, he has served on the Freshmen Council for Service to Society and has participated in numerous volunteer projects. Justus believes that education is a fundamental human right and an opportunity that everyone should be granted. In his free time, he enjoys photography and fishing. Justus is 25 years old and from Rwanda. She envisions a world where people can work to understand differing perspectives. She hopes to start a social enterprise focused on improving the communication of science to the public.

    She has participated in research projects in both Singapore and the United Kingdom. She has held teaching positions at MIT as both a chemistry and physics teaching assistant. Through Schwarzman Scholars, Katheryn hopes to improve her understanding of global perspectives and improve her business skills.

    Katheryn is 21 years old and from the United States. Kevin earned his B. M education to Alabama students. In addition to understanding China, its culture and its politics, Kevin aims to study the intersection of education and technology as a Schwarzman Scholar. Kevin is 27 years old and from the United States. During college, he facilitated the establishment of the college innovation and entrepreneurship center through his effort. Keyang is 22 years old and from China. She is the founder of a national tech education nonprofit and a Gates Cambridge Scholar, currently pursuing her master's in Political and Economic Sociology at the University of Cambridge.

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    • Passionate about using happiness research to improve policy-making, she has interned at the White House, at a happiness economics institute in the Netherlands, and for the Royal Government of Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Commission. Kiera is 23 years old and from the United States.

      Kseniya is 25 years old and from the Netherlands and Russia. Additionally, he served for the Taiwan Youth Climate Coalition and Youth Advisory Council to raise awareness, provide suggestions and develop new approaches to the relevant socio-political questions. Before that, Kuan-I received his Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting at National Taiwan University and cooperated with student teams to organize one of the largest international hackathons in East Asia for more than a thousand engineers, designers and programmers.

      As a Schwarzman Scholar, he hopes to develop his ability to achieve resilience and sustainable development with the joint action of the public sector, the private sector and civil society. Kuan-I is 26 years old and from Taiwan. He is currently the Associate Director at a policy research firm that he helped establish.

      Previously, his research inputs on entrepreneurship, skill-development and innovation informed policies for India's central as well as state governments. He also served as an Executive Director at AIESEC India—a member strong youth leadership body—where he ran high-impact community development projects in 25 countries. Kushal is 26 years old and from India. Lidiia Zhgyr is a graduate of Kyiv National Economic University with a masters in International Economics, where her interests were focused on marketing of non-governmental organizations.

      As Vice President of the organization, she initiated a new format of anti-corruption conferences to support active youth in the aftermath of the Euromaidan Revolution. At the same time she served as a paramedic at the Revolution and organized voluntary support to the military hospitals during the conflict in the East of Ukraine. During her time at Tsinghua University, she will focus on the adaptation of successful education models to the ongoing Ukrainian education reform. Lidiia is 25 years old and from Ukraine.

      He is dedicated to promoting balanced development of educational resources in China in order to expose students in remote areas to quality educational services, information and opportunities. To achieve that, he sent thousands of experience-sharing manuals to students for free, published a charity book called Here We Set Off as editor-in-chief, organized a charity winter camp and attracted social capital to invest his NGO to build an online charity class.

      He also expressed his idea of balancing educational resources to the world when he served as representative of the United Nations Economical and Social Council and drafter of APEC Youth Declaration. As a Schwarzman Scholar, Lijunren expects to build friendship, cooperation and mutual trust with youth from all over the world to face up to future challenges. Lijunren is 21 years old from China.

      She has reported on dozens of political and economic events including G20 Hangzhou Summit, the Belt and Road Summit, and many bilateral state visits. Lin is 28 years old and from China. Lindokuhle is an active and accomplished leader who has grasped opportunities to develop his leadership skills both locally and globally. As President, inter alia, he successfully led a fundraising campaign that raised over 1. He was awarded a Life Time Leadership Award by the University of the Free State, awarded in recognition of his sterling contribution made to the University through different roles in the past three years.

      As a Schwarzman Scholar, Lindokuhle hopes to maximize the experience, opportunities and networks for the betterment of society. Lindokuhle is 24 years old and from South Africa. After graduation, she served as the chairman assistant in a public company. In October , she founded her own company called Panda Town, working for the overall operation and management of this company.

      She's created an internet financing platform with nearly 1 million registered users now. Through Schwarzman Scholars, she wants to have a deeper business insight on a global scale. Lingyu is 27 years old and from China. Lionel Jin will graduate from Yale College in , with a B. He received the Hart Lyman prize, the highest award in the Yale junior class for character and achievement and was inducted to Phi Beta Kappa as a junior. He was editor-in-chief of the Yale Scientific Magazine, and served as Treasurer of European Horizons, a student-led think tank. Lionel is excited about working in tech and building products that will transform the way we live.

      Lionel is 24 years old and from Singapore. Lucienne Oyer is a senior majoring in Economics at Stanford University. She is completing an honors thesis on Chinese overseas infrastructure development, and conducted fieldwork for the project in Ghana. The past two summers, Lucy worked in infrastructure investment banking at Goldman Sachs, and for the U. Embassy in Beijing. Lucy hopes to use her time at Schwarzman to deepen her knowledge of Chinese international economic engagement in preparation for a career in business and economic policy-making.

      Lucy is 21 years old and from the United States. Lucy co-founded and served as the Vice President of the Feminist Alliance, a student organization for feminist activism. Lucy interned with the U. Department of State in Washington, D. He is ranked among the top 5 percent of his class and is passionate about the development of wind energy in Kazakhstan. Magzhan was also a lead director in the largest educational debating event hosted in Kazakhstan in Magzhan is 21 years old and from Kazakhstan.

      Mandy Tan is a Consultant at Deloitte Consulting, where she has led teams of up to 20 peers and worked in a variety of industries including life sciences and technology. American stock exchanges. As a Schwarzman Scholar, she hopes to further her passion in developing organizational strategies for global expansions. Mandy is 24 years old and from the United States.

      He plans to pursue a PhD in economics and work on climate policy issues. Matt also enjoys hiking, playing soccer, and doing pretty much anything outdoors. Matt is 22 years old and from the United States. He is interested in the Middle Eastern-East Asian economic relationship, and hopes to leverage his background and Schwarzman experience to connect promising firms and industries from those regions to cross-border financing and expertise. Michael is 23 years old and from South Korea. After graduation, Min joined CBPartners as a consultant, providing strategic guidance to biotech companies.

      In , Min joined ofo, the pioneer of dock less bike share, as one of their first employees to help ofo enter U. Min is 25 years old and from China. He hopes to work on global technology policy and robot ethics. Miro is 22 years old and is from Germany, United States and Canada. Post this, he went on to pursue his medical clerkships and global health focused research at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

      His primary interest lies in reducing maternal deaths and improving healthcare accessibility for the underprivileged. His determination in working towards this goal and passion for public speaking has led him around the world to represent his country. Namit hopes to be a physician leader someday and earlier this year, he graduated with an MPH from Harvard as the class of Vice — President.

      Suresh Prabhu who mentored him in negotiation, strategy and good governance. Namit is 26 years old and from India.

      Faculty & Presenters

      Her diverse background has brought her to Lisbon, Portugal where she underwent the Cross-cultural Communication and Negotiation Program and conducted research on comparative policy. In , she accepted a full-scholarship at the University of Oslo with the Peace Research Institute in Norway, where she was trained in diplomatic relations. She has also consulted for the International Organization for Migrations, worked for the National Elections Council, the European Union Delegation to Ecuador, and worked extensively in the private sector.

      Additionally, she served as president of her local Rotaract International Club, and led a global fund-raising campaign to provide housing for families affected by the earthquake in Ecuador. Nataly is 24 years old and from Ecuador. As co-creator of the Mass Atrocity Prevention Symposium, Netteange also encourages future leaders in the armed services to realize their responsibility in preventing future atrocities. Netteange dreams to create a multi-nation atrocity prevention agreement that will hold nations accountable for maintaining peace and drive them to take action to protect the defenseless.

      Netteange is 21 years old and from the United States. After graduation, he worked as a management consultant at Accenture in the telecommunication, media, and technology practice. Post consulting, he moved to Startups where he has helped create education programs for global venture capital investors. Newton hopes to use the Schwarzman program to further his knowledge about tech innovation and entrepreneurship while building his chops as a venture capital investor.

      A Truman, Mellon Mays, and QuestBridge scholar, he studied and worked in a number of countries and has spent the last 2 years living in Mexico City. He speaks Spanish and Portuguese and is a music lover, political junkie, and closeted urbanist. Newton is 27 years old and from the United States. A strong advocate for arts curriculum in the Chinese education system, Nicole hopes to use her time as a Schwarzman Scholar to initiate more fluid conversation between international art institutions and China.

      Nicole is 22 years old and from Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. Noah Lachs has combined his English Literature degree at Oxford University with intensive extra-curricular activities, ranging from investigative journalism to marathon running. Noah was elected President of the Oxford Union in In this role he hosted global leaders before large audiences and international media. Keen to combine his world of literature with business, he has worked with chief representatives of JK Rowling at a top Literary Agency.

      Noah is 21 years old and from the United Kingdom. Nofar has spent over three years in China, where she co-founded GoGreen Week, transformed Green Shanghai, and conducted research on economics and environmental policy. She also studied in Washington, D. Such experiences reinforced Nofar's passion for environmental action, public policy and international relations. Nofar is 25 years old and from Israel.

      She is an alumni of the renowned Credit Suisse scholarship and aims to pursue her career in finance after the Schwarzman Scholars program. Olayemi uses her position to facilitate relationships between college alumni and current students, broadening the scope of student ambition at the college. She hopes to work in private equity, specifically in emerging markets. Olayemi is 20 years old and from Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Oleksandr Guzenko is a consultant in strategic communications, government relations and public affairs at Ukraine's CFC Consulting Company.

      He currently leads a team of professionals to streamline communications at the Parliament of Ukraine. He also launched an initiative that fosters independent multimedia journalism in Ukraine. He holds a bachelor's degree in Journalism from Sumy State University. TRAPE 5 3. TRESS 8 4. TRAVE 25 3. PRESS 25 4.

      Information presented in this study lists Soviet, CHICOM, North Vietnamese, and East European diplomatic and trade mission personnel re- presented in Thailand; identifies Intelligence personnel; discusses signi- ficant hostile intelligence operations, and assesses the extent of the threats posed both to Thailand and the US Army presence there.

      U The date of information for this study is 1 January Re- cipients of this publication are reminded of the strict caveats attached. U Reader attention is invited to the Counterintelligence Gaps identified in Appendix 1. During the last two decades, the Thai have been a key ally of the United States in the struggle against coiimunism in that area. Since the early 's, Thailand has followed strong anti-communist and pro-Western foreign and domestic policies. The Thai however, have a history of accommodation to hostile countries when under pressure, such as the aid given to the Japanese in World War II.

      By nature the Thai could exhibit this again in the future. Thailand has made a substantial contribution to the war effort in Vietnam. Besides permitting the use of its territory for the launching of air operations over Vietnam and Laos, Thailand has sent a division-size contingent to fight in the Republic of Vietnam. The country is ruled by a constitutional mon- archy dominated by a military oligarchy. The rule of the military has not been overly oppressive and a start has been made toward economic develop- ment of the country. Other than the communist movement, there is virtually no opposition to the present regime.

      The Thai people have generally shown little interest in politics. About 40, US troops are now stationed in Thailand. Most of these troops are US Air Force personnel stationed at seven major air bases throughout Thailand. The majority of these troops are engaged in air operations in support of the Vietnam war.

      There are also significant num- bers of US Army personnel engaged in such support activities as the develop ment of logistical facilities, the construction of communication lines, and logistical support of the US Air Force in Thailand. North Vietnamese and Chinese Communist agents working through the indigenous communist movement or through the large populations of ethnic Vietnamese and Chinese living in Thailand have the potential to conduct a wide variety of intelligence oper- ations against US Forces.

      Little information has been uncovered on these activities. A major hostile intelligence threat in Thailand is posed by the espionage activities of the Soviet diplomatic mission in Bangkok. Errboiiy b. Scze: 50 personnel assigned d. It Is not known whether these Soviet personnel will re- turn to Thailand in the near future.

      TRAVE a. Location: Office in Soviet Embassy, Bangkok b. Scze: One person assigned e. The designations "Known KGB" and "Known GRU" are applied to individuals on the basis of information developed during their previous assignments or on the basis of their active participation in agent operations in Thailand. The designation "Suspect Intelligence" is applied to persons who exhibit only one or two of the many characteristics that usually indicate in- telligence affiliation.

      Known KGB: 7 b. Suipect KGB: 7 c. Knom GRU: 3 d. Soviet intelligence operatives feel they are making Inroads against the capitalist nations by maintaining a presence in Bangkok. While the Soviets primarily seek to recruit personnel who could be valuable to them in future assignments, their interest is also directed toward the identification, cultivation, and recruitment of Ameri- cans of immediate intelligence potential.

      Thailand also provides the Soviets with a training ground for their agent handlers. If he has intelligence potential, the Soviet will try to meet the American in a quieter and less distracting environment. This second contact, usually is made soon after the Initial meeting. Mention will again be made of the common bond of two Caucasians in the Far East. At this point, the Soviet will deter- mine which of two approaches to use In surfacing a possible motivation for the American: ideological or monetary.

      If the ideological approach is chosen, the Soviet will make an appeal to the American in the cause of world peace. The Soviet will portray the Soviet Union as the -standard-bearer for forces of good. If the American accepts this explanation of the world sit- uation, the Soviet will continue to play on the same theme, hoping to re- cruit the American for long-range intelligence purposes.

      YCS - partner extranet

      If ideology can- not be used as a motivating factor, the Soviet will indicate that payment will be made for Information provided by the American on a continuing basis. Soviet spotting activity is normally accomplished by the operative himself. Although it is possible, there is no firm information indicating that other Soviet personnel are tasked with surfacing specific leads for future approach by an agent handler.

      American personnel who have agreed to cooperate with the Soviets are generally tasked with spotting duties. They may be told, for example, to develop a friendship with a secretary at the American Embassy for the purpose of using her as a sub-source. This delegation of spotting ac- tivity, however, is not aggressively followed up by the Soviet operative.

      Sources are alerted to surveillance and listening techniques, but they are given no instruction on evasive measures. Simple instructions are given on the use of a camera and how to pass a brief acse in a casual manner; however, no formalized training pro- gram is followed. The Soviets are particularly interested in US-Thai relations, disposition of troops, and new plans, programs, and equipment to be introduced into Thailand. The Soviets have further expressed interest in the possible pre- sence of US nuclear and biological weapons in Thailand.

      In general, the Soviet operative stresses the need for the source to furnish classified documents of any nature. The Soviets have not diverted sources from their natural placement and access to furnish information that would necessitate exposure, risk, and possible compromise. Personal meetings are used almost exclusively between the Soviet handler and the American source.

      Initially, meetings occur every seven to 15 days. After the American has Indicated his will- ingness to cooperate, meetings are scheduled 20 to 30 days apart. After 62 this working relationship is established, meetings occur at selected res- taurants in Bangkok where the presence of the agents will not arouse sus- picion or attention. This also permits the Soviet handler and American source to conduct business in relative privacy. Dates and times for these meetings are scheduled by the Soviet at the convenience of the source's normal dally schedule. Cover for these meetings Includes the two identi- fying themselves as friends with Intellectual curiosities about the other's culture, way of life, and outlook on the world situation.

      Occasionally, the Soviet gives the source an accommodation telephone number for use in emergency situations. Russian items, such as caviar and vodka, are freely passed to sources, but these should be considered as incentive items rather than equipment. Although no contractual agreements have been concluded as a part of recruitment, several Americans have been recruited in Bangkok. These individuals were spotted and had requirements levied on them.

      They provided information and documents and received payment for them. Sub- sequent meetings were held with future contact arrangements established. The Soviets are apparently using Thailand as a training area. The Soviet agents are being trained to operate not only in the Far East, but in the Free World itself. A few of these operatives have only theoretical train- ing, while others are experienced in an East European operational climate. In Bangkok, operatives are given the opportunity to function in a new area under different conditions.

      Meeting and handling American sources in Bang- kok serves as a training vehicle to enable the Soviet operative to operate more knowledgeably at a future date. An Ameri- E c can source's immediate value to the Soviets is limited by the short length of his stay in Thailand.

      For example; a young, mature soldier with a college background could be seen as a potential State Deparment O oil employee. An Army major is viewed as a potential colonel or general officer q w " with future access to highly sensitive information. It is anticipated that sources developed and tested in Thailand will be recontacted after their arrival at a new duty station for further intelligence collection ac- tivities. To date, the Soviets are not believed to have Initiated any high- level intelligence operations against US Forces or installations in Thailand.

      The Soviet Union poses the single greatest hostile espionage threat to the US in Thai- land, however. While the Soviet Union's operations in Thailand appear rel- atively limited, not all of the known or suspected Soviet intelligence per- sonnel in Thailand have been detected engaging In Intelligence activities. The Soviets are capable of conducting espionage operations against the US in Thailand without being detected. This leaves open the possibility that there are more high-level, long-range operations that have not been detected by the security agencies. It must be assumed that long-range operations have been undertaken against US Forces in Thailand.

      The Soviets can be as successful in recruiting agents in Thailand as they have been throughout the world. Because of the large number of US personnel that are exposed to the free- roaming Soviet agents In Thailand, it is very likely that recruited American personnel will be performing espionage missions for the Soviets in future years. The Soviet Embassy in Bangkok serves as a good base for oper- ations.

      The Soviet agents are only limited in the sense that they do not want to be detected performing illegal activities that might jeopardize their stay in Thailand. The primary aim of the Soviets, however, still appears to be the spotting and preliminary cultivation of American sources for future use. While Soviet intentions In Thailand against US Forces are focused on the long-range potential operations, the vulnerability of the US security posture to the Soviets should not be minimized.

      Therefore, US personnel whose best potential lies elsewhere will still be of Immediate value to the Soviets by providing timely Information on current US activities. The CPT was outlawed and went under- ground in In that same year, the party adopted a resolution which proclaimed that armed struggle was the only path to socialism for the Thai people.

      Organizational activities and the building of an infrastructure of village supporters proceeded In many areas of the country. Overt in- surgency broke out in and has continued ever since. Although the insurgent movement has created problems for the Thai, it does not threaten the stability of the government at present. The Chinese have been the greatest source of Ideological support for the Thai coimiunlsts. They have provided training for Thai insurgents and members of the top lead- ership of the party.

      The organization operates an illegal Chinese-language school. It also controls significant areas of the five southern provinces of Thailand. Money Is forwarded either overtly using the official exchange rate or covertly using the blackmarket rate. The money is sent through Hong Kong. The organization has not been known to participate in subversive or espionage activities; however, it has the capability to do so.

      It takes about one month to make all the arrangements from the time the traveller mostly ethnic Chinese applies to the time he leaves, osten- sibly on a round trip to Hong Kong. It is believed that the Thai officials are aware of this travel but are bribed to ignore it. The travel arrangements are handled very quietly and confidentially. The 3. The PRC has often exploited such sentiments for intelligence purposes.

      It Is estimated that Chinese subversive activities using either the local insurgent movement or the ethnic Chinese population of Thailand would be directed primarily at the Thai Government and population rather than against US Forces stationed in Thailand. Such activities would be a danger to US Forces stationed in Thailand only insofar as they would Influence either the Thai Govern- ment or population to adopt a hostile attitude towards the United States. Such a situation is not considered likely In the near future. Economic: Negligible e. The probable targets of Chinese Communist espionage are Thai military and civilian organizations and US and Soviet personnel.

      Chinese Communist Intelli- gence most probably exploits contacts with the indigenous communist movement and attempts to recruit ethnic Chinese with Thai citizenship. While PRC intelligence sources are probably low-level observation-type agents, it is possible that they have a few high-level sources who are officials in the Thai Government, A number of Thai insurgents have been trained in the PRC and this training is believed to have included in- struction In espionage and sabotage techniques. The PRC-aided insurgency in Thailand has met with little success in most of the country.

      The movement in the Northeast has suffered some difficulties, but the insurgents in the North have had greater success. The insurgents in this area, mostly mountain tribesmen, control portions of the tribal populations and have forced a withdrawal of Royal Thai Government forces from several areas. Eventhough the insurgency has suf- fered some minor set backs, It has continued to grow slowly but continuously 2. Intelligence activity ia low at present.

      Thailand can be expected to con- clude similar agreements with other East European countries in the future. The small repre- sentation of East European countries in Thailand limits the possibility of such operations taking place. As Thai-East European relations im- prove and trade and diplomatic relations increase, however, the East European countries can be expected to launch Intelligence operations.

      Is minimal. Even though these countries are increasing their relations with Thailand, it is doubtful that their in- telligence operations or general threat will reach the proportions of the Soviet hostile espionage threat or the subversive threat of the PRC. Northeast Thailand. Location: Scattered throughout the Vietnamese refugee areas. SZzz: Approximately 85 - 90 per cent of the Vietnamese refugees are Trung Uong members or sympathizers.

      Funding: Largest part of the organization's finances is pro- vided by its members; only a small portion comes from North Vietnam. PotUicaZ: Negligible b. Economic: Negligible C. The Vietnamese are watched very closely by the RTG security agencies and any Indication that these refugees are actively supporting the CPT or are engaging in terrorist attacks would lead to their imprisonment or deportation. The Vietnamese generally are not actively involved in the communist insurgent movement. The North Vietnamese conduct intelligence operations in Thailand from their embassy in Vietiane, Laos.

      The embassy in Vientiane is conducive as a base for intelligence operations in Thailand due to the embassy's close location to Thailand and the large Vietnamese population in the northeastern por- tion of Thailand. North Vietnamese intelligence agents are directed primarily against the KTG and the Thai military; however, it is believed they are also collecting information on US Forces in Thailand. In this respect, the North Vietnamese probably gather low-level tactical information on US installations for possible use by terrorists in sabotage or mortar attacks.

      Soviet personnel engaged in intelligence activities in Thailand. Dates and places of birth of Soviet intelligence personnel. Local addresses in Thailand of Soviet intelligence personnel. Photographs of Soviet Intelligence personnel. Any local Soviet connections, such as front groups, friendly trading firms or businesses and personnel dealing significantly with the Soviets.

      Soviet Intelligence operations. All facets of the Thai Patriotic Front. PRC intelligence activities to Include personnel, organizations, targets, and methods of operation. Names and addresses of East European facilities in Thailand. Local East European connections, such as front groups, sympathetii q groups, or businesses and personnel dealing with East European countries. East European intelligence operations. ThxeAt Study - Thailand.

      Users may submit comments, suggestions, or queries pertaining to this publication to the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Army, Washington, D. Special Operations Center B. G2, Army Operations Center C. Project Proposed Annex 6: A. Royal Fleet Intelligence. Staff B. National Executive The King 2. Council of Ministers 3. National Security Council 4. Intelligence Advisory Board 5.

      Department of Central Intelligence 6. National Security Command 7. Communist Suppression Operations Directorate B. Armed Forces 1. Ministry of National Defense 2. Armed Forces Security Center 3. Armed Forces Intelligence Operations Center 4. Directorate of Joint Intelligence CJ2 5. Royal Thai Army 6. Royal Thai Air Force 7. Royal Thai Navy C. Civilian — Ministry of Interior 1.

      Thai National Police Department w 1 1 D. Stability of the Regime III? His principal function is to serve as a living symbol of national unity and identity, similar to the role of the monarchy in the United Kingdom. Since adoption of a constitutional system following a coup d' eXat in the King has had little real power. The stature of the kingship has grown, however, with the coronation of the present regent, Phumiphon Adulyadej. Most polit- ical regimes have attempted to identify themselves more closely to the King.

      In recent years, the King has exercised some influence over government decisions, although the military leaders retain firm control of the govern- ment. Since early , the King has been highly critical of the Royal Thai Army's role in counterinsurgency operations, specifically among the hill tribes in northern Thailand. He has said in public forums that the army's punative practices are pushing the tribesmen toward communism. In the King encouraged the army to change its tactics, and his informal role in countersubverslon policy may increase significantly.

      Three small agencies aid the King. See Figure 1 on page 2 and Figure 2 on page 3. The Privy Council is composed of nine members appointed by the King from among the senior nobility and elder statesmen. Its function is to advise the monarch and, under certain conditions, appoint a regency to exer- cise royal powers. The Privy Council, which provides a link between the throne and the administration, occasionally has demonstrated some influence over governmental decisions. The Office of the Royal Household organizes ceremonial ftmctlons of which there are many and administers the finances and housekeeping of the royal court.

      The Private Secretariat performs clerical and secretarial tasks for the King. It frames and implements all Important national policies and is the center of the entire political system. The Cabinet is comprised of heads of the 13 ministries, six deputy ministers, two deputy prime minis- ters, and the Prime Minister. Each minister is appointed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet meets frequently to formulate legislative proposals and executive policies.

      Within the Cabinet, however, most executive power is concentrated in the Office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Ministry of Defstse. In addition to holding the top two positions of the Office of the Prime Minister the single most Important executive office these two men also hold the top military and police positions.

      Both men also hold top roles In all the majot Intelligence and security services, as well as in the National Security Council, the highest polic3rmaking board of the intelligence coimnunlty. Figures 1 and 2 3. It was established by the National Security Act "of The NSC consults and makes recommendations to the Council of Ministers on internal and foreign affairs, economic and military policy, and other matters Involving national security. It usually meets once a month. Permanent members of the Secretariat perform the adminis- trative chores of the NSC.

      They also handle the manbershlp of the various NSC boards and committees. The Secretariat often dispatches inspection teams to investigate matters of immediate concern to national security. In January another team investigated the serious insurgency occurring in north-central Thailand at that time.

      Sunit Sutthanukun. It is responsible for recommending long-term government policy in response to specific requests from the NSC, or at its own initiative when the chairman feels a policy or policy change is needed. In July the Planning Board prepared long- term government policy toward Malaysia and Singapore in response to questions from the Cabinet. The most signifi- cant Planning Board study in recent years, which was initiated by the board itself, involved a recommendation to revise RTG policy towards the hill tribes in north Thailand. Within six months after the report was submitted to the NSC, policy changes were in force along the recommended lines.

      Studies in on the Laotian situation, however, have had less an impact on Royal Thai Government policy. Its main tasks are to see that government policy Is known to the various ministries and to supervise implementation of the policy. Directives are issued to the ministries in the name of the Secretariat. The Coordinating Bo. For further Information dn the lAB, see paragraph A, 4.

      In the past, countersubversion policy was made within CSOC. Policy was approved by a rubber-stamp Council of Ministers without recourse to the NSC The new policy means that NSC committees must either prepare, or study in detail, all countersubversion plans before they are approved by the NSC. Following an inspection trip by an assistant secretary general, the NSC was advised that a joint center for control of all border movements would be established, marking a more aggressive role for the NSC.

      Although DCI's effort to centralize operations under Its own control was rejected, the NSC did make an Initial step to resolve some of the more blatant rivalries. The studies on which policy decisions are made are conse- quently of greatly improved quality. This is because the members of the NSC concurrently fill the more influential posi- tions of the Council of Ministers. When a decree is required to implement a policy decision of the NSC, approval of the Council of Ministers is obtained and arrangements are made to have it signed by the Prime Minister and the King.

      In such a case, policy is issued directly by the Coordinating Board. In many cases, open discussions follow presentations and briefings, at which there are often good interchanges of ideas between the ministers present. This causes some wasted effort. This is the first known comprehensive document to be used by all RTG minis- tries as a guide for reaching department-level decisions. Although neces- sarily general, it has served as a useful tool for the various ministries. The document covers internal, international, military, economic, and socio- logical affairs.

      The objective of the study was to force intelligence coordination by the fragmented and competing elements of the Thai intelli- gence community. The probability of attaining a smooth implementation of a national intelligence collection plan, however, is not great — certainly in the short run. If counterinsurgency planners continue to receive inade- quate intelligence support, however, the impetus for change may follow.

      Mission: The Intelligence Advisory Board lAB , the senior intelligence advisory element at the national level, is responsible for the supervision and coordination of all RTG intelligence activity. The LAB was established originally by executive order in September on the 1-y advice of the Cabinet. Formal Cabinet approval did not occur until June Subsequent orders in , , and added additional members to the TAB. The order of 19 August superseded all prior orders concerning lAB membership and is believed to be the order under which the lAB is cur- rently organized. It implements intelligence and counterintelligence operations at the national level as required for national security.

      It also levies requirements on appropriate agencies. Division 7 of the Department of Central Intelligence serves as the lAB's operating arm in this function. Capabilities 1 Although the Intelligence Advisory Board has been the senior advisory body on intelligence to the Prime Minister and National Security Council since its inception in , it did not have the authority or means to supervise and coordinate all government intelligence activity until September This upgrading of the lAB, accomplished under the direction of Secretary General Wichit Songkhram, is the latest in a series of efforts to improve the government intelligence structure.

      Most Thai intelligence and security services are assigned missions of SiCRET political intelligence collection; intelligence services have traditionally served as a means to political power. The separation of powers between key government leaders that pervades the governmental structure is mirrored by the careful balance of control over the intelligence services. The new lAB could upset this balance of power. In an Initial recommendation, for example, DCI suggested that Division 7 be assigned responsibility for preparing the mission and roles of all other Thai intelligence services.

      The National Security Council, however, would not grant this power to any single independent agency. Furthermore, Division 7 does not yet have an organization or bud- get. It is not expected to be fully manned for at least three years. In other words, the structure for centralized control now exists, but the apparatus to enforce that control does not. These products consisted of the most elementary collation of reports from other government agencies.

      In November , for example, the lAB completed an analysis of internal and external policies of neighboring South- east Asian nations.. Some of the lAB conclusions were as follows: "Installation of a leftist government in Burma would allow Communist China to use Burma as a base of operations against Thailand"; "Failure of the Lao to control the Thai-Lao border will cause difficulties for Thailand"; "Cambodia will use the refusal of Thailand to recognize Cambodian borders as a propaganda item"; and "Political maneuvering within the South Vietnamese government may create a situation which the Viet Cong can exploit.

      This may mark an improvement in the lAB pro- duct, but it could also be a document prepared by DCI and published without change by the lAB. In there was additional evidence of worthwhile indepen- dent lAB analysis involving studies on the impact of US withdrawal on Thai policy and of communist capabilities to infiltrate Thailand.

      DCI Is a regular government agency with Civil Service status and is required to function within the laws and regulations of the Civil Service Commission. It originally borrowed about police officers to staff the organization, but government policy later required the DCI to return them to the Police Force. DCI has no special budgeting procedures; funds are channeled through the Office of the Prime Minister. Functions 1 The Department of Central Intelligence collects political, economic, and military information mostly from overt sources on countries of intelli- gence interest to Thailand.

      Its principal areas of concern are the contiguous countries. This program is aimed at all three levels of the country: high-level government officials; medium- level government employees businessmen and educators , and the general populace. DCI also prepares intelligence annexes for all studies which require decisions by the Prime Minister or the NSC on matters of national security. Both civilian and military individuals, agencies, and -units attend these classes.

      Training courses for DCI person- nel are also held at the sites. Several agencies provide input to the DCI staff studies for the Intelligence Advisory Board and many agencies assist in security investigations. DCI has close association with the National Police Special Branch and the Armed Forces Security Center, both of which provide some assistance in the conduct of domestic intelligence operations. It has also made phone taps on some Indonesians living in Thailand.

      It is likely that DCI has performed similar functions against other targets. It is not known whether DCI would control the operations of these forces or if the mission would be assigned to the mili-tary should an agreement be reached. An element of the Office of the Prime Minister possibly was selected to make the original contact due to the sensitivity of the mission.

      Most DCI covert operations are concerned with political activities. In DCI conducted background investigations of persons selected by the military establishment as potential members of a government party and a controlled opposition party. DCI headquarters includes a Secretariat and six divisions. The Secretariat handles all matters pertain- ing to personnel, finances, and other administrative functions.

      Control of DCI Is centralized. No major decisions are made or actions taken without approval from the Director or his deputies although some division chiefs are given more latitude than others. In November DCI had approximately persons assigned. The division performs similar functions for all other RTG civilian agencies. Its five sections include: 1. Training Section 4. The division has six sections: 1. Section 1, General intelligence information on communism.

      Section 2, Thai communists. Section 4, Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian activities. Section 5, Malaysian, Indonesian, and Burmese activities. Section 6 compiles dossiers on known or suspected communists other subversives. Section 1, Western Hemisphere. Section 2, Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Section 4, Africa. Section 5, United Kingdom and Australia. Section 1, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Section 2, Burma, India, and Pakistan. Section 3, China, Japan, and Korea. Section 4, Malaya, Philippines, and Indonesia.

      Section 5, Middle East. Section 1 provides technical support to the other divisions. Section 2 handles all communications within DCI and monitors foreign radio broadcasts. SectjLon 3 conducts a training school for personnel in communications and other technical assignments. It also maintains all the other DCI training sites. It originally was intended to become a "super control agency," supervising operational matters of all other services.

      The Cabinet cut back its func- tions, however, and it is not able to write the missions and roles of the other agencies. Division 7 has no funds at this time and is not expected to be fully manned for at least three years. The following mission for Division 7 has been approved : To receive intelligence requirements from the National Security Council and the Intelligence Advisory Board and to translate these require- ments into specific instructions as the basis for intelligence and counter- intelligence operations.

      Capabilities 1 The capability of the Department of Central Intelligence to conduct covert or clandestine operations within Thailand against hostile foreign intelligence services, the Communist Party of Thailand, or other subver- sives is extremely limited. Since its inception, the DCI has conducted only a few such operations, and these were on an ad hoc basis. Most opera- tions use overt sources, usually members of the leftist community who are well aware of their superiors.

      Some improvement can be noted over the past five years. Even this improvement must be described as minimal, however. These are then forwarded to the Prime Minister with appropriate comments. Some DCI personnel are sent overseas to engage in limited joint opera- tions with foreign agencies, but these operations rarely extend beyond normal liaison responsibilities. This greatly restricts its ability to perform its primary assigned function.

      Nevertheless, DCI's capability in this area is good. It has excellent contacts in the leftist community and should be in a position to detect any potential political opposition before it can be expressed overtly. Should a similar emphasis be placed on more conventional intelligence operations, DCI's capabilities could improve considerably. Since DCI has tried to fill its vacancies, but it has been restricted by Civil Service law and policies.

      In some positions were filled, but these amounted to only 20 per cent of the required total. This shortage of person- nel has forced DCI to abandon plans for sending agents abroad and throughout Thailand on specific Intelligence missions. Contin- uity of funding suffers when the Office of the Prime Minister concludes that its limited resources should be diverted temporarily to other agencies. DCI personnel have received limited training and have similarly limited experi- ence in intelligence operations.

      Although the DCI schools gradually have improved the quality of personnel, the level of professionalism is still below the standards necessary for a professional intelligence service. Nepotism and assignment of family friends to positions over more deserving individuals causes some morale problems. Personnel security proce- dures have improved considerably during the past few years, primarily due to the continued political role of DCI.

      Protection of sources is no better than other agencies. DCI always has had the mission of collating infor- mation from all intelligence services, but has not had any active program to accomplish the mission. Jealousy among the intelligence services and the ease with which each service can communicate directly with the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister are the chief reasons.

      This cyrrent effort to eliminate fragmentation and competition within the intelligence community seems to have higher level support than other similar past efforts. It is unlikely, however, that the other services will give up their collation and reporting responsibilities easily. The propensity of the senior Thai leaders to communicate directly with the agency involved in a particular operation will not be eliminated immediately. Nevertheless, this is a valuable step in the right direction. Should the new division establish its authority over rival agencies, however, DCI may gradually lose some of its operational assets and responsibilities.

      The RTG leadership is not likely to encourage the creation of a single national intelligence service due to the political threat it may pose. Mission: The NSCC was formed in April and given the responsibility for integrating all the efforts of Royal Thai Government agencies concerned with countering communist subversive and insurgent activities.

      The NSCC works primarily on passive or preventa- tive operations. See Figure 5 on page This function is expected to be handed over to CSOD. This function also is expected to be handed over to CSOD. The three subordinate commands Northeast, North, and South are little more than paper organizations.

      In the Supreme Command wished to expand NSCC's area of operations, but GEN Praphas, fearing army domination of his police forces, successfully argued for creation of the new organization. MDU's are expected to create an immediate impact In their target villages, using civii action and psychological warfare programs. High-impact activities might include medical clinics; demonstration of new crops, pesticides, and ferti- lizers; films; folk plays, and construction of wells.

      This stage lasts between six weeks and two months. During the second stage lasting approximately one year , MDU teams develop additional projects on a more responsive and intensive basis. These usually require mobilization of local ability and labor. In the latter stage, projects are continued by trained local leadership with direct assistance from the several RTG ministries.

      The MDU gradually gives up operational control of their projects, with only a small NSCC staff remaining for intelligence collec- tion duties. Most of this training involves graduates of Thai universities and vocational schools who will be used to develop agricultural and cottage industries at MDU sites. Some training is offered to local personnel selected to operate projects with MDU assistance. It supports all MDU building operations in the country.

      Whxle much of its initial effort has been directed towards construction of MDU facili- ties, it has built several important networks of security roads in support of count ersubversi on plans. Their contacts with ministry personnel in Bangkok and the provinces, their association with local village leadership, and their personal observation of conditions in areas likely to support subversive activities make them valuable informants.

      The MDU organization has its own information collection function in identifying problem areas for further government action. Most of this information, however, deals specifically with information relating to MDU operations. MDU personnel are not likely to report information dealing directly with subversion or corruption through MDU channels. Instead, they will report this information through their own ministries, or through another intelligence service — notably the Special Branch or the Armed Forces Security Center.

      Much information, however, goes unreported. MDU numbers 21 and 22 were deployed to the mid-South in March Two others are in the preliminary planning stages, and another three are projected for The National Security Command plans to move additional MDU's into areas suspected of being communist subversive targets but not yet experiencing overt insurgency.

      Areas so designated are in the north and north-central regions of the country. Other considerations include develop- ment needs, previous RTG neglect, and population inaccessability. They are commanded by an RTA colonel. The military command structure was formulated to provide for a single authority for MDU operations and to prevent ministry interference with assigned personnel.

      Each MDU has a headquarters element based in a provincial or district seat. Under the headquarters are a varying niCnber of teams or subdevelopment bases. The num- ber depends on how many personnel are available and the size of the budget approved by the NSC. MDU's 21 and 22, for example, each had 11 teams on a budget of about 1. Military personnel provide communi- cations, leadership, engineering skills, and transportation. The civilian ministries and agencies provide men with the more specialized skills, inclu- ding educators, doctors, veterinarians, and sanitary engineers.

      MDUs are designed to bring the Royal Thai Government RTG authority into the rural villages, impressing upon villagers the ties they have with the government. MDU's serve to counter subversive propaganda.

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      Despite the several difficulties identified below, the MDU operations are improving with each lesson learned in previ- ous operations. One of the more important aspects of the MDU program is that it is generally Thai-planned, Thai-funded, and Thai-operated. The RTG demonstrates that it is willing to meet the subversive threat at its own level, using similar tactics. The subsequent rise in expectations was followed by a distinct cynicism of the villages.

      By , however, the MDU method of operation had changed. MDU teams are now expected to remain semi-permanently in their base camp and provide development projects to larger numbers of villages over a longer period of time. This has had some success. The model village concept has failed because surrounding villages have not patterned themselves after the model village as intended.

      Furthermore, the MDU teams are urged to produce, rather than to teach. MDU personnel rarely consult wlth-local officials about village needs. Once the MDU leaves, the village leadership is unwilling to retain dictated changes. When communication lines are open between the village leaders and the commander of the MDU, however, success is the rule and not the exception. It plans and executes operational plans targeted against the Communist Terrorist Organization CTO in the Thai-Malaysian border area, whether conducted by Thai forces, Malaysian forces, or both.

      The RBC does not preclude the functions of Thai and Malaysian military and police commands, but it does require coordination of these plans with the RBC. Although the GBC members might agree on a tactical point, for example, the orders to implement the new policy would be formulated In each national command and transmitted to the national repre- sentation on the RBC.

      If both staff officers do not receive the same orders from their superiors, no action is taken. The Operations Section has no control over actual counterinsurgency operations. The RBC draws up the plans for operations, but they are implemented by the national commanders of the forces involved.

      Plans often prove inadequate. At other times, implementation and coordin- ation are poor. These deal with proposed changes in the border agreements between the two nations and usually involve improved measures for permitting quick, joint action against the CTO. Large military and police operations must be approved by the GBC. The GBC does not have an independent staff. These meetings can also be called during emergencies.

      They also formulate and recom- mend large operations to the GBC and approve small-scale operations. This takes up most of his time. The Deputy Chairmen act as chairmen in absence of the latter. They arrange for all meetings of the RBC, prepare its agenda, maintain min- utes of the meetings, and conduct liaison with other departments for the chairmen as required. It maintains all files -and indices , and performs name checks on personnel and organizations in support of other desk officers.

      The Clerical Staff types all correspondence, directs all mailings, and handles all other office work as required by the RBC. The division processes, disseminates, and collates these reports and forwards them to the General Border Committee and other approved agencies. The Intelligence Division carries out its own intelli- gence planning for operations within the areas under RBC jurisdiction. The 0,0 division carries 19 men, six of which are In the Operations Section. It Is also responsible for planning counter- Intelligence activities.

      It also maintains the CTO order-of-battle and situation charts. It is further responsible for initiating the necessary registry action on the reports received. The Research Section is primarily responsible' for full-time research on the CTO organization and structure. The section prepares papers on specific elements of the CTO apparatus and method of operation as directed. The section maintains close liaison with the other divisions and submits recommendations to the Intelligence Division on appropriate action against the CTO. It is also responsible for handling all captured CTO documents.

      The Security Section maintains the security of the RBC office building and compound, Issues security passes, maintains a register of movement of regulations involving the movement, storage, and destruction of classified Information. The section also issues security regulations relating to the RBC and the field teams, and advises individuals and divisions on security precautions.

      The field teams are responsible for collection of information from the field and liaison with local officials and agencies. The number and location of these teams vary according to collection requirements. These teams often conduct their own patrols. They are under Thai operational con- trol, but 15 Malaysian Special Branch officers operate with the teams. The Joint Interrogation Center was established in July , following the June meeting of the General Border Committee, Its duties include interrogation of suspects, captured personnel, and those who sur- render.

      Each team consists of four men. The center was organized at the behest of the Thais, who did not have trained interrogators familiar with Malay or Chinese. The Intelligence Division provides all available information. The Operations and Planning Section is responsible for planning, operations, and liaison with ground forces of both nations. While agreements can often be worked out in the General Border Committee GBC meetings in Kuala Lumpur, Implementation of these agreements may proceed sporadically, depending upon personal rela- tionships between Thai and Malaysian officials within the Regional Border Committee.

      For the most part, coordination is adequate. This has not always been the case. This collaboration included the sale of arms and the passing of advance information on counterinsurgency operations. Time still has not completely healed the harmful effect this activity had on Thai-Malaysian relations in the RBC. In instances where Thai officials or civilians are killed in CTO operations, letters of apology are usually sent to the Thai officials.

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      Despite Thai disclaimers, the propaganda does have an Impact. For example, reports show that some Thai military and police officials are willing to sell arms to the CTO while refraining to do so to the Communist Party of Thailand, which they view as a serious internal threat. Many Thais still hold these views despite intelligence reports showing that the CTO is organi- zing among the Chinese population in southern Thailand, and is attempting to recruit large numbers of young Thai-Malays.

      The Thai-Malays are another source of friction between Malaysian and Thai officials. For this reason, the Thais do not wish Malaysians to operate on the Thai side of the border in any substantial number. Local Thai officials, however, have refused to have anything to do with the Malaysians. In mid Operation Sawasdee was launched in Yala Province, involving police from both countries on both sides of the border.

      The limited success was encouraging and has led to similar operations in During that meeting, the Thais refused the most significant request of the Malaysians — permission to move Malaysian army units across the border, without prearrangement , in pursuit of CTO units. Four were engaged in operations. Between 20 February and 21 July , such reports were processed. The RBC Intelligence Division has published approximately weekly intelligence summaries to date; these have been quite useful by operational units.

      In addition, the Intelligence Division produces monthly summaries, which are a compilation of the weekly summaries. Despite these visible improvements, the intelligence structure of the RBC is hampered by a lack of qualified personnel to collect, collate, and analyze material. Many intelligence agencies retain material that the Intelligence Division should receive; the division operates on the assumption that it receives only about 75 per cent of the available information on the CTO.

      Most of these inadequacies are Thai, not Malaysian. While part of the problem may rest with the low Royal Thai Government priority given the RBC, inadequate Thai intelligence procedures and training play a part. Most of the intelligence production of the RBC is prepared by the Malaysian contin- gent of the Intelligence Division, and then published over the signature of the RTG representative. General: VJhile CSOD is manned primarily by military officers, it represents an attempt to coordinate the military, police, and civil agencies in a national effort supervised by the highest level of the Royal Thai Government.

      For this reason, it is carried under the National Executive portion of this document. CSOD has undergone two major reorganizations since its inception. The first occurred in October and involved a significant loss of authority to the Royal Thai Army. The second occurred in May and, among other things, involved a change of name. The CSOD general mission is to implement the defense and communist suppres- sion policy by coordinating and supervising the use of all national resources to maximum effectiveness, according to designated policy.

      These :. Beginning in November , there was considerable confusion as to the exact functions that CSOC would perform in the future. In January , CSOC formulated a plan for the establishment of hill-tribe security companies after the Border Patrol Police and the array submitted different individual plans. Called Concept No. Ill, it was designed to organize counterinfiltration teams along the Thai-Laos border. Although the area under consideration was under martial law with Royal Thai Army responsibility, police and civil authorities were given significant roles in counterinfiltration operations.

      It was then assigning the task of fulfilling these plans to the police and local civil authorities.