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NY went on to win 4 games in a row. Willie Mays made a spectacular catch and throw in the 8th inning. It was launched Jan Smith's and M. William Willis sailed a raft from Peru to Samoa. In T. P12 www. Britain agreed to withdraw its 80,man force within 20 months, and Egypt agreed to maintain freedom of canal navigation. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized a crash program to train the South Vietnamese Army. Eisenhower was the first to publicly state the Domino Theory while discussing the need to defend South Vietnam from North Vietnamese Communists.

The analogy of a row of dominos, arranged so that when one falls it causes the rest to fall one after the other, was used to express the notion that when one country in a region becomes Communist, neighboring nations will then begin to fall under Communist rule. This was an operative theory that guided U. The country had no standing army. Eisenhower offered aid to S. Vietnam Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem. Poor health prevented him from going to Stockholm to receive it.

TMC, , p. He was arrested in and condemned to death but later freed, and left for exile in Lausanne in Vishinsky b. Jacob A. Godzilla went on to star in 22 films. Matisse b. An end volume was planned. It was produced by David Merrick d. John Strapp traveled MPH in a rocket sled. Naguib was fired and a state of emergency declared. He served as the President of Poland from to Fermi led the team of international scientists to produce the first nuclear chain reaction, giving birth to the atomic bomb.

Elizabeth Hodges of Alabama as she was sleeping on a couch. The space rock was a sulfide meteorite weighing 8. Hodges was not permanently injured but suffered a nasty bruise along her hip and leg. This was the 1st modern report of a Meteorite striking a human. Army general counsel John G. Adams d. It was possibly the first miniseries. C6 www. Her most popular years were in the s and early s, although her career began around and continued until her death. Sam Sheppard, an osteopathic surgeon, was convicted of murdering his pregnant wife, Marilyn, and was sentenced to life in prison.

Sheppard spent 10 years in prison before the Supreme Court overturned the verdict; he was acquitted at retrial in and died four years later. Ronald Herrick donated a kidney to his twin brother, Richard. In Dr. Murray was warded a Nobel Prize for his work. Arnon reported that, after 6 years of research, he had succeeded in isolating chloroplasts in a test tube. It took 25 years for the Dow to return to pre-crash levels. The photo inspired the sculpture by Felix de Weldon d. It was made into a movie in It was illustrated by N. Brent Bozell and William F.

Buckley Jr. Jim Morrison later named his band "The Doors" after this book. This belief was developed in his book: "The Nature of Prejudice. In Allen Weinstein wrote an account of the Hiss-Chambers case. In Sam Tannenhaus wrote a biography of Chambers. In Hilton Kramer wrote "The Twilight of the Intellectuals," a portrayal of the influence of the political left on the cultural life of Cold War America.

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The story was based on Brit Johnson, a black Texas ranch foreman, who was killed by Kiowa raiders in She wrote 15 children's novels and in "Vermont, the State with the Storybook Past. A movie of the same title was released in She had written it at age 47 out of fear that her married lover would leave her. He never left her and saw to it that the novel got published.

Toklas Cookbook. TL, , p. It was directed by Fred Zinnemann. Arkoff d. They soon began producing films for the teen market such as "I Was a Teenage Werewolf. Producer Darryl Zanuck called it off. The documentary film "Tigrero" was made by Finnish filmmaker Mika Kaurismaki. Niver , cinematographer and film historian, received an Oscar for his restoration of 3, movies made between and He converted frame-by-frame paper photographs back into film using his own designed Renovare Process over a period of 15 years.

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During this time he wrote 11 books that included a cross-reference for the early movies and the book: "The First Twenty Years: A Segment of Film History. It was edited by Coles Trapnell d. The show closed in Handy" on Columbia. Plank pioneered the use of what came to be known as master limited partnerships, an investment vehicle that can be traded publicly with significant tax advantages to investors.

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Preston Pope Satterwhite had donated an entire 17th century English paneled room, some pieces of art along with cash to house it all. Rosvold d. He studied mental processes like short-term memory and discovered the first of several complex networks in the brain. He was one of the first to reveal a functional connection between the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia.

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It had just been cut from a Ron Hubbard d. In the group claimed to have 5, members worldwide. The group expected to make contact with extraterrestrials in Bissell Jr. He later directed the Bay of Pigs invasion.


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Residents cannot vote on national elections and their governor is appointed by the president. NG, Jan, , C. Mitchell, p. In he was convicted of 29 counts of operating a payroll kickback scheme and was censured by the House. He was the first chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus and served from and They were decommissioned in In the area became home to the non-profit Marine Mammal Center.

It covered the ancestral lands of Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians. As part of the settlement the chiefs and their followers were promised eternal government protection. NG, Aug. Everett Parker , an American ordained minister, created a public relations office for the Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Church, which became the United Church of Christ in a merger. A5 www. The US Postal Service dropped the program in Proponents said it was built to honor military veterans. In a federal judge ordered the cross to be removed.

Ownership eventually passed to the state. The property was closed in due to Northridge earthquake and reopened in By he was operating 22 locations and sold the chain to W. Grace, but continued for a decade as president. Applegarth, was built at Mason. In it counted dues-paying members. Mitty consecrated John Joseph Scanlon as a bishop. Scanlon then served as bishop of Honolulu from The Silvestri family bought it in the s and used the former nightclub for storage. Lin engineering firm. Governor of California. Congress voted to close it in This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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Selected Poems, 1954-1986

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Utusan Online. Taiwan News. Retrieved 22 June That is, there seems to predominate an approach that values both linguistic inquiry and expertise, on the one hand, and the practical teaching of the languages, on the other. Therefore, the variety and range of scholarship offered by English departments is usually not available even in Afrikaans en Nederlands departments that is, departments of Afrikaans and Dutch, more often now just called departments of Afrikaans , let alone departments of African languages these also often tend to be tiny and grossly understaffed in comparison to other language departments.

For instance, it is unlikely that domains such as film, feminism and gender, queer studies, transnational literary studies, African literatures in English especially Southern and Eastern African , and life writing biography, autobiography, memoirs or fictionalised autobiography would be offered in a language department other than English. Notably, the list above shows the fields of expertise and specialisation available at the English Department at Stellenbosch University, one of the major academic institutions of the country. No other language department at the university has such a varied range of offerings; as a consequence, a number of students who would otherwise have done an honours degree in Afrikaans, for instance Stellenbosch is the major Afrikaans-medium institution in the country , choose English instead because there is no equivalent range of specialties for Afrikaans again, linguistics in its various branches is quite a large field in the Afrikaans department, whereas it is non-existent in the English department.

The situation is bleaker in the African languages department at Stellenbosch, which is tiny and mostly geared to the linguistics and teaching of isiXhosa only. However, it is my contention — though I cannot present the social history of Bantu languages and linguistics here in more than a highly sketchy and therefore somewhat speculative fashion — that the language materials themselves reveal a good deal about the conditions under which African languages were intended to be studied.

First, the meta-language of explication that had to be mastered by learners was already an index of what was constructed as the utter otherness of those languages — which paralleled, undoubtedly, the perceived otherness of their speakers. That is, the learner is left in no doubt that the language she is learning is an object that is wholly alien. Namely, the model used seems to be one predicated on specific patterns of learning and an approach to language learning that ultimately harks back to those employed in learning the two classical languages in Europe, an elite activity in which usually only elite males took part.

The meta-language of explication in this sense is one that even the average educated mother-tongue speaker of English would probably consider as Greek. Perhaps a paroxysm is reached when this meta-language is then fed back into the very language that is the object of scholarship for that is what it is, meritorious didactic efforts on the part of the various authors notwithstanding — namely, the learner is invited to take part in what is nothing less than a scientific endeavour.

One of the most impressive aspects of this model is that its artefacts — namely, the grammar books, manuals, and dictionaries, not to mention readers and other materials — are often re-edited and reprinted many decades after they were first published. The book was first published in by the Witwatersrand University Press without a doubt historically the most prestigious academic imprint for Bantu languages in the country.

I have a reprint which is the tenth impression of the sixth edition of the book, first published in published by Maskew Miller Longman a prestigious local educational publisher on behalf of the University of the Witwatersrand. It is a posthumous impression Doke died in As far as I know, though the book may no longer be in print this is the post- apartheid era and therefore the time of indifference to local languages , it is still used I purchased my almost brand new copy in a secondhand bookshop in Mowbray, Cape Town.

However, the resilience through time of African language materials and, more important still, their authoritativeness, clearly points to a timelessness that is not unknown outside the field of African languages, especially in what concerns dictionaries. However, I doubt very much that anyone would dare re-issue a European language dictionary after many years without re-editing it. Yet that is exactly what Maskew Miller Longman has done. In fact, the only change is one of an orthographic nature namely, in the orthography was revised to follow the new orthography for isiXhosa, a revision carried out by none other than Jolobe himself.

One of the things a dabbler in African languages such as myself soon learns is that African languages have been tortured throughout the twentieth century by a very complex and astonishing mixture of subalternisation and meddlesomeness. In true centralist fashion, as soon as one orthographic system is superseded, texts in it can no longer be printed.


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Of course, today with apppropriate software and fonts, any letter can be easily reproduced. That was not however the case in the first half of the twentieth century. In one famous case, a manuscript by John Henderson Soga, son of the famous Xhosa missionary and man of letters, Tiyo Soga, could not be accepted by the publisher Lovedale Press , even after the author had gone to a good deal of trouble typing it out, because the orthographic reform came just as the manuscript had been finished.

It is still in the possession of the University of Fort Hare, and, of course, in spite of the prestige of its author, it remains unpublished to this day Opland , — One is tempted to wonder whether this would have been the case had the author been white or had she written in a European language. Maskew Miller Longman, with the help of two prestigious isiXhosa writers and scholars, W. Bennie 13 and J.

Jolobe, had reissued the dictionary in and then, in , revised it in the new orthography required by the apartheid state that basically went back to the previous orthography which had been abolished as recently as the s. Incidentally, all the orthographies now in use for local languages were made official by the apartheid state. Therefore, in one ludicrous case, the Kingdom of Lesotho and the Republic of South Africa have had different orthographies to write the exact same language, Sesotho, since Even though both orthographies do not differ very much from each other, one can imagine the effect of such practices in a publishing market that is both restricted and grossly under-funded.

Resilience of African language materials It turns out that the dictionary was never updated, expanded or substantially revised after or, in terms of orthography only, after The consequences are glaringly obvious as one leafs through it. Take the entry iOrlam, for instance, that refers to the member of a South African group of colonial origin. That the same definition should find its way into the edition of the dictionary issued by a prestigious publisher, deep into the second decade of the post-apartheid era, is a very poignant reminder of both official and general indifference to African languages in the current dispensation.

That the book is widely distributed and can be found in all the larger bookshops for instance, those belonging to the Exclusive Books chain , and is also used in schools in fact, it seems to be the most widely used Xhosa—English dictionary in the country, universities included , is a sign both of the sore need for African language materials — to the point that old, authoritative-looking materials whose copyright has long expired are eagerly reissued without as much as a second look — and the subalternising practices to which African languages, not to mention their speakers, have been subjected since colonial times.

Moreover, what is even more impressive is that this has been done without anybody apparently ever taking notice of the fact. There is a sore need for isiXhosa dictionaries. The only dictionary widely found in bookshops is in fact an English—Xhosa Dictionary that is obviously meant for Xhosa learners of English a further indication of the prevailing language hierarchies in the country: Fisher et al. The impressive looking, three-volume and three-language — isiXhosa, English, and Afrikaans dictionary of the official isiXhosa National Lexicography Unit, is very comprehensive, but is unfortunately beyond the purse of even middle-class buyers each volume costs R — Tshabe, Pahl, and Mini — See also Nyembezi Nor is this an isolated example.

The dictionary was first issued in and, very obviously, never revised, even though it was reprinted no fewer than six times in little more than four decades. A good deal of them frequently employ example sentences, for instance, that refer the learner back to colonial relations of subordination as well as to an indigenous, rurally based, traditional, non-modern, African culture.

To some extent, it certainly is. However, as some of the example sentences and sentences used in translation exercises a favourite kind of exercise in this type of material that possibly also harks back to Latin manuals 20 repeatedly show, there is much more at stake as there is something much worse at play here: the materials also refer the reader back, as I hope to show below, to a culture of colonial origin of authoritarianism and servitude.

Doke, for instance, provides the learner with ethnographic-sounding examples to illustrate his grammatical points that are perhaps fundamental to the genre. They are also quite sophisticated in comparison to what a good deal of other language materials seem to offer, including, as we shall see, those of a much more recent vintage. Furthermore, as difficult to follow as his explanations of intricate points of isiZulu grammar often are, his analytical mind seems brilliant, and his skill in illustrating grammar points through sentences and phrases has a definite literary quality to it.

It is difficult nowadays to imagine the teaching of isiZulu, or any isiZulu-related research, without reporting back to his grammar and his other work on the language. For instance, his lexicographical work, together with B. In this way, he may have left a deep and lasting imprint on the way the language is explicated and taught. Nonetheless, it is more than faintly peculiar to be reading, in the post-apartheid era, a sentence such as Asimthetho wasesilungwini, even though this was still published in the last years of the apartheid era.

The Oshikwanyama Dictionary Tobias and Turvey [] , even though first published in , is in fact related to an earlier, German lexicographical work, first published in It is therefore worth perusing them further. In Teach Yourself Zulu, a prestigious international language manual with audio material available in South African bookshops , first published in and therefore in the post-apartheid era, the second lesson features an interview between a madam and someone who is presumably a maid who knows other maids Wilkes and Nkosi [] The madam who has just come to South Africa from England is looking for house help.

She inquires whether Gertrude — the prospective maid about whom they are talking — can cook, whether she likes children and can speak both English and Afrikaans interestingly, the maid says that Gertrude can speak English, but her Afrikaans is not good. The dialogues are far from uninteresting they are introduced in the audio material by a lady with a shrill voice and what I take to be a Zulu accent : unfortunately, much of the grammar in them, as I soon discovered, is left for the learner to figure out on his or her own — say, by flicking through the pages of the textbook looking for the relevant grammatical explanations further on.

Therefore, within each lesson, the learner has to take what is presented more or less on faith. The authoritativeness of the manual is in this way reflected both in the dialogues and in the obvious expectation that the learner will gobble up whatever is offered more or less uncritically however, I did not, and that caused me to drop the manual altogether as figuring out the grammar in the dialogues proved to be too time-consuming and frustrating.

This kind of learning dialogue is far from common in language materials related to other say, European languages; a quick perusal of other materials in the Teach Yourself series related to Dutch, and Spanish, for example, clearly demonstrates this. In fact, the dialogues mark the subalternity of isiZulu to the white supposedly foreign and English learner right away: it is the language of prospective maids, female street vendors and petrol-pump attendants. The dialogue with the female street vendor is particularly entertaining: I can hardly imagine a madam shopping in the streets of Johannesburg or Durban, for instance, instead of shopping inside a protected supermarket with guards, an armed response unit on standby and camera surveillance.

The dialogue reveals therefore an almost idyllic imagined world of African street markets and African market women offering fresh produce to the local madam — that street scene could have been set perhaps anywhere in Africa, had it not been in isiZulu and had mention not been made of the South African currency, namely, the rand also, it could be set at any point in time, for it clearly harks back to a representation of a timeless world of African rurality and marketing. Whilst things improve a little further on — in another lesson, for instance, the English couple comes to a birthday party — the first couple of dialogues certainly set the tone for the learner.

Fanagalo and isiZulu In fact, if we try to look at Fanagalo, isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, and English in a connected way, we discern the contours of a much more complex picture. It has unsurprisingly remained understudied compared to other languages. As far as I know, no great name such as Doke has studied it. Nor has the post-apartheid South African state to my knowledge ever considered making Fanagalo an official language.

I believe that hardly any specific meta-language has been developed to describe it, differently to what happened in the case of isiZulu, and language materials seem therefore to be much scarcer than for other languages. Fanagalo in fact deserves a much more detailed discussion than the limits of this article allow for. These histories are not confined to specific languages or national boundaries, and therefore their full exploration requires a multilingual, translinguistic approach.