Let me quote to you a passage from an essay urging the institution of schools of physical science for artisans, which says all I wish to say and more:. The value of the cargo of the Great Eastern alone in the recent Bombay telegraph expedition was calculated at three millions of pounds sterling. It also led to the employment of thousands of operators to transmit the telegraphic messages, and to a great increase of our commerce in nearly all its branches by the more rapid means of communication.
The discovery of Voltaic electricity further led to the invention of electro-plating, and to the employment of a large number of persons in that business. The numerous experimental researches on specific heat, latent heat, the tension of vapours, the properties of water, the mechanical effect of heat, etc.
About a quarter of a million of persons are employed on railways alone in Great Britain. The various original investigations on the chemical effects of light led to the invention of photography, and have given employment to thousands of persons who practise that process, or manufacture and prepare the various material and articles required in it.
The discovery of chlorine by Scheele led to the invention of the modern processes of bleaching, and to various improvements in the dyeing of the textile fabrics, and has given employment to a very large number of our Lancashire operatives. The discovery of chlorine has also contributed to the employment of thousands of printers, by enabling Esparto grass to be bleached and formed into paper for the use of our daily press.
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The numerous experimental investigations in relation to coal-gas have been the means of extending the use of that substance, and of increasing the employment of workmen and others connected with its manufacture. The discovery of the alkaline metals by Davy, of cyanide of potassium, of nickel, phosphorus, the common acids, and a multitude of other substances, has led to the employment of a whole army of workmen in the conversion of those substances into articles of utility. The foregoing examples might be greatly enlarged upon, and a great many others might be selected from the sciences of physics and chemistry: but those mentioned will suffice.
There is not a force of Nature, nor scarcely a material substance that we employ, which has not been the subject of several, and in some cases of numerous, original experimental researches, many of which have resulted, in a greater or less degree, in increasing the employment for workmen and others.
Let me ask in return: Are none of you going to emigrate? And if you emigrate, you will soon find out, if you have eyes and common sense, that the vegetable wealth of the world is no more exhausted than its mineral wealth. Not half of it—I believe not a tenth of it—is yet known. Could I show you the wealth which I have seen in a single Tropic island, not sixty miles square—precious timbers, gums, fruits, what not, enough to give employment and wealth to thousands and tens of thousands, wasting for want of being known and worked—then you would see what a man who emigrates may do, by a little sound knowledge of botany alone.
And if not. Suppose that he went further still. Suppose he learnt something of this, but nothing of aught else. Would he have gained no solid wisdom?
He would be a stupider man than I have a right to believe any of my readers to be, if he had not gained thereby somewhat of the most valuable of treasures—namely, that inductive habit of mind, that power of judging fairly of facts, without which no good or lasting work will be done, whether in physical science, in social science, in politics, in philosophy, in philology, or in history. But more: let me urge you to study Natural Science, on grounds which may be to you new and unexpected—on social, I had almost said on political, grounds.
We all know, and I trust we all love, the names of Liberty, Equality, and Brotherhood.
We feel, I trust, that these words are too beautiful not to represent true and just ideas; and that therefore they will come true, and be fulfilled, somewhen, somewhere, somehow. It may be in a shape very different from that which you, or I, or any man expects; but still they will be fulfilled. But if they are to come true, it is we, the individual men, who must help them to come true for the whole world, by practising them ourselves, when and where we can.
And I tell you—that in becoming scientific men, in studying science and acquiring the scientific habit of mind, you will find yourselves enjoying a freedom, an equality, a brotherhood, such as you will not find elsewhere just now. Freedom: what do we want freedom for? For this, at least; that we may be each and all able to think what we choose; and to say what we choose also, provided we do not say it rudely or violently, so as to provoke a breach of the peace.
That last was Mr. That was the only limit to it which he would allow; and I think that that is Mr. It is mine. And I think we have that kind of freedom in these islands as perfectly as any men are likely to have it on this earth. But what I complain of is, that when men have got the freedom, three out of four of them will not use it. But are you sure first, that you think what you choose, or only what someone else chooses for you?
Are you sure that you make up your own mind before you speak, or let someone else make it up for you? Your speech may be free enough, my good friend; and Heaven forbid that it should be anything else: but are your thoughts free likewise? Are you sure that, though you may hate bigotry in others, you are not somewhat of a bigot yourself?
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That you do not look at only one side of a question, and that the one which pleases you? That you do not take up your opinions at second hand, from some book or some newspaper, which after all only reflects your own feelings, your own opinions? But you must remember always that a newspaper editor, however honest or able, is no more infallible than the Pope; that he may, just as you may, only see one side of a question, while any question is sure to have two sides, or perhaps three or four; and if you only see the side which suits you, day after day, month after month, you must needs become bigoted to it.
Your thoughts must needs run in one groove. They cannot as Mr. And I tell you that if you, or I, or any man, want to let our thoughts play freely round questions, and so escape from the tendency to become bigoted and narrow-minded which there is in every human being, then we must acquire something of that inductive habit of mind which the study of Natural Science gives. It is, after all, as Professor Huxley says, only common sense well regulated.
But then it is well regulated; and how precious it is, if you can but get it. The art of seeing, the art of knowing what you see; the art of comparing, of perceiving true likenesses and true differences, and so of classifying and arranging what you see: the art of connecting facts together in your own mind in chains of cause and effect, and that accurately, patiently, calmly, without prejudice, vanity, or temper—this is what is wanted for true freedom of mind. Slightly later, Volterra was founded by the Etruscans on that very hill top.
And then the Romans came.
And then pizza and gelato. And finally, us, the height of evolution: Geology tourists. Etruscan gate in Volterra. The limestone walls show the wear of time. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
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The narrower streets, the more cosy! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. The sequence was subsequently metamorphosed by heat and pressure and folded tightly in a NW direction so that the rock layers are now almost vertical. Many tall buildings in the Cape Town CBD are founded on these rocks, which were in most places scoured by wave action during past periods of higher sea level.
The Peninsula Granite is a huge batholith that intruded into the Malmesbury Group about million years ago as molten rock magma and crystallized deep in the earth, but has since then been exposed by prolonged uplift and erosion. The characteristic rounded shapes of granite boulders are a result of preferential weathering along intersecting joint fractures and are well displayed around Llandudno and Simons Town.
Close up, the granite is a coarse-grained rock consisting of large cm white blocky feldspar crystals, glassy quartz and flakes of biotite, and inclusions xenoliths of dark, baked Malmesbury hornfels. In some places, intense weathering has altered the granite to kaolin clay that can cause slope stability problems in road cuttings. High quality kaolin is mined near Fish Hoek and Noordhoek. The contact zone where the Malmesbury Group was intruded by molten granite can be seen at the Sea Point Contact and was made famous by Charles Darwin during his voyage of scientific discovery on H.
Beagle in Here, beds of dark coloured Malmesbury rock, altered by intense heat are intermingled and folded with the light coloured intrusive granite. Though initially intruded at great depth, prolonged uplift and erosion eventually exposed the granite at the surface, forming the basement rock.
The sedimentary rocks of the Table Mountain Group were deposited on the eroded surface of Malmesbury and granite basement rock. Deposition occurred in braided stream channels and tidal flats of a coastal plain and delta environment that extended across the region about million years ago.